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Individualized Learning in Executive Education Accommodating the Modern Learner

Studies show that the vast majority of knowledge workers feel they do not have enough time to do their actual jobs, let alone step away from their desk for formal training. Over 40% of employees’ time is reportedly spent on tasks that do not tangibly help them achieve their professional responsibilities. Their workflow is frequently disrupted – often, ironically, by a notification on one of their multiple collaboration tools. As a result, 1% of the working week is all they feel they can devote to professional development.i Meanwhile, digital disruption and increased automation has created an unprecedented skills gap in the global jobs market.ii
In these changing times, engaging in career-long learning has never been more vital.

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Consequently, ambitious young managers are increasingly taking their professional development into their own hands, eschewing the rigid syllabus of traditional executive education in favour of micro-learning platforms such as LinkedIn Learning. These online platforms offer flexible, mobile learning – with the individual in the driving seat.

Indeed, the heyday of off-the-shelf, syllabus-led executive education is over. The return on investment (ROI) of these often expensive leadership development programs has been called into question. Companies rightly demand ways of measuring change, in performance or behaviours, in the years following their purchased program. Executive education providers must search for those answers.

Companies rightly demand ways of measuring change, in performance or behaviours, in the years following their purchased program.
The problem is not a lack of expertise at top business schools, but the way some of their business has been conducted. Clients, after communicating their transformational agenda, often let teaching faculty decide the content and design of training programs – while the executive participant remains more or less anonymous until that very first coffee and icebreaker session. Highly motivated participants may proactively try to relate the learning objectives to their own (very personal) career roadblocks and team dynamics. Others may switch off when they perceive topics to be unrelated to their own needs. Either way, the content is often in danger of being processed on an intellectual level only – however engaging the topic or the trainer.

Clearly, as executive educators, we need to maximize the impact of our offerings. We cannot afford to brush off accusations of irrelevant content and academic bombast. Instead, we must set the bar for a new standard of leadership development, upending the top-down nature of certain business models and shifting the focus on to individual participants.

Learn More Mentor Your Colleagues

Anybody with experience or accreditations can deal with a group, however your administrative obligations incorporate something other than task appointment and timecard endorsement. To be a decent director, you should zero in the development of your colleagues just as your organization.

The best administrators realize how to deliberately consolidate the qualities of each colleague to fabricate an effective association. As per Deborah Sweeney, CEO of MyCorporation, great directors utilize passionate insight and delicate abilities to do this.

“Generally, we have been instructed to accept that the individual with the most noteworthy IQ in the room is the sharpest,” Sweeney disclosed to Business News Daily. “Nonetheless, science is progressively demonstrating that people with passionate knowledge and its four center abilities – which incorporate mindfulness, self-administration, social mindfulness and relationship the executives – are really the top entertainers inside any organization.”

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To make a significant, devoted group, you’ll need to advocate for them. Like great mentors, supervisors should keep representatives persuaded and enthusiastic about the work they do. This will assist your group with staying away from burnout and appreciate conveying their best work. “Powerful supervisors mentor by posing inquiries, enabling their colleagues to think profoundly, and produce arrangements,” said Shtull. “Thusly, colleagues acquire certainty and develop, and at last become astounding managers themselves.”

Tell representatives you care about their fates and vocations. Furnish them with the preparation and information they need to prevail in the work environment. Great directors are not undermined by the development and achievement of their workers; all things considered, they embrace and energize change.

“I accept an extraordinary administrator realizes how to take advantage of the qualities of their colleagues and transform their one of a kind capacities into solid exhibitions,” said Sweeney. “A decent chief isn’t undermined by change in the work environment – regardless of whether it’s an adjustment of how certain cycles are done or new administration – and embraces and supports novel thoughts and methods of getting things done.”

On the off chance that you guide your group so they can accomplish their maximum capacity, you will likewise see your association prevail thus.

Get Familiar With Align Deals, Advertising And Client Care Groups

Sustaining leads is a collaboration. Deals and client service groups find out about an organization’s crowd firsthand, and the advertising group has a great deal of noteworthy information.

Compelling joint effort among these groups will bring about better knowledge, which will prompt better arrangements.

Direct overviews – To fabricate an association with your leads, you should comprehend their requirements. Studies permit prompts stop for a minute they feel as would be natural for them. On the off chance that you get some information about their objectives or the issues they face, you’ll have the option to make an arrangement for how to get them to the furthest limit of the purchaser’s excursion.

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Score leads – Lead scoring allows you to allot a worth, frequently mathematical, to your leads dependent on their practices.

Since few out of every odd lead will be in similar phase of the business channel, you shouldn’t put a similar measure of energy into each prospect. For instance, your lead-scoring model may allot more focuses to possibilities who invest energy perusing your site and have higher navigate rates, and less focuses to the individuals who have pursued a pamphlet yet seldom open messages. Your endeavors will probably have a greater effect on the off chance that you center around the possibilities who are drawing in with you.

You can attempt to interface with the individuals who score exceptionally on a more close to home level, for example, by having an agent contact them.

Circle back to your leads after you make the deal – Lead supporting doesn’t end after the deal. After a client has purchased your item or administration, you need them to continue to return, since they are probably going to burn through three fold the amount of as once clients, as indicated by a report from web based business showcasing stage Yotpo.

Why does Customer Delight Matter?

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, customer delight was a nice add-on. Now, it’s practically a necessity game judi slot. During the pandemic, small businesses had two choices: pivot to a new business model or stay the course and hold on to the customers they already had. Those who took the latter route had no choice but to delight customers.

“Customer delight has become the way through this global meltdown, where so many of us have seen our revenue plummet,” Majcher said. From eliciting warm feelings to building loyalty, here are four benefits to creating customer delight harrysbarvenezia.

  1. They know you care.
    Customers tend to be loyal to the businesses that appreciate them. If you go above and beyond to show you appreciate their business, they’ll be more loyal to your brand in good and bad times. judi slot online, daftar situs judi slot online terpercaya, game slot online, situs judi slot online, daftar situs judi slot online terpercaya 2020, situs slot online terbaik, casino slot online 888, situs slot online indonesia, nama nama situs judi slot online, situs slot online, online slot, daftar slot online, link slot online, slot game online indonesia, slot online indonesia, game slot online indonesia, slot online, slot jackpot online, judi online slot, judi slot online indonesia, judi mesin slot online, judi slot online android, slot judi online, agen slot online, games slot online, situs judi online slot, permainan slot online, bandar judi slot online, slot 88 online, agen judi slot online, judi slot online terpercaya, main slot online, game judi slot online, link judi slot online, bermain slot online, slot online 2021, daftar situs judi slot online, slot online casino
  2. This requires listening to your customers and responding to their complaints and desires. By paying attention to them, you’ll find opportunities to delight them and enhance your relationships.
  3. They become your promoters.
    Word-of-mouth marketing is the cheapest and arguably most effective way to promote your business, and delighting your customers is a natural way to achieve it. Delighted customers tend to share their excitement with friends, family and others in their network. They might share an update or post a tweet praising the brand. That referral is more powerful than an ad campaign.
  4. It increases customer spending.
    Customers tend to spend more with the companies that make them happy. The more you delight them, the more they are apt to spend.
  5. It protects your reputation.
    Your business is only as good as its reputation. A bad review on Yelp or several complaints on social media can have a negative impact on your sales. If you give your customers delight, it will cushion the blow from any bad reviews. You have brand ambassadors who believe in your company and will likely defend you against negative comments.

New Worlds in a River of Young Stars Discovered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

Using observations from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), an international team of astronomers has discovered a trio of hot worlds larger than Earth orbiting a much younger version of our Sun called TOI 451. The system resides in the recently discovered Pisces-Eridanus stream, a collection of stars less than 3% the age of our solar system that stretches across one-third of the sky.

The planets were discovered in TESS images taken between October and December 2018. Follow-up studies of TOI 451 and its planets included observations made in 2019 and 2020 using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, which has since been retired, as well as many ground-based facilities. Archival infrared data from NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) satellite – collected between 2009 and 2011 under its previous moniker, WISE – suggests the system retains a cool disk of dust and rocky debris. Other observations show that TOI 451 likely has two distant stellar companions circling each other far beyond the planets.

“This system checks a lot of boxes for astronomers,” said Elisabeth Newton, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, who led the research. “It’s only 120 million years old and just 400 light-years away, allowing detailed observations of this young planetary system. And because there are three planets between two and four times Earth’s size, they make especially promising targets for testing theories about how planetary atmospheres evolve.”

A paper reporting the findings was published on January 14, 2021, in The Astronomical Journal.

Stellar streams form when the gravity of our Milky Way galaxy tears apart star clusters or dwarf galaxies. The individual stars move out along the cluster’s original orbit, forming an elongated group that gradually disperses.

In 2019, a team led by Stefan Meingast at the University of Vienna used data from the European Space Agency’s Gaia mission to discover the Pisces-Eridanus stream, named for the constellations containing the greatest concentrations of stars. Stretching across 14 constellations, the stream is about 1,300 light-years long. However, the age initially determined for the stream was much older than we now think.

Later in 2019, researchers led by Jason Curtis at Columbia University in New York City analyzed TESS data for dozens of stream members. Younger stars spin faster than their older counterparts do, and they also tend to have prominent starspots – darker, cooler regions like sunspots. As these spots rotate in and out of our view, they can produce slight variations in a star’s brightness that TESS can measure.

The TESS measurements revealed overwhelming evidence of starspots and rapid rotation among the stream’s stars. Based on this result, Curtis and his colleagues found that the stream was only 120 million years old – similar to the famous Pleiades cluster and eight times younger than previous estimates. The mass, youth, and proximity of the Pisces-Eridanus stream make it an exciting fundamental laboratory for studying star and planet formation and evolution.

“Thanks to TESS’s nearly all-sky coverage, measurements that could support a search for planets orbiting members of this stream were already available to us when the stream was identified,” said Jessie Christiansen, a co-author of the paper and the deputy science lead at the NASA Exoplanet Archive, a facility for researching worlds beyond our solar system managed by Caltech in Pasadena, California. “TESS data will continue to allow us to push the limits of what we know about exoplanets and their systems for years to come.”

The young star TOI 451, better known to astronomers as CD-38 1467, lies about 400 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. It has 95% of our Sun’s mass, but it is 12% smaller, slightly cooler, and emits 35% less energy. TOI 451 rotates every 5.1 days, which is more than five times faster than the Sun.

TESS spots new worlds by looking for transits, the slight, regular dimmings that occur when a planet passes in front of its star from our perspective. Transits from all three planets are evident in the TESS data. Newton’s team obtained measurements from Spitzer that supported the TESS findings and helped to rule out possible alternative explanations. Additional follow-up observations came from Las Cumbres Observatory – a global telescope network headquartered in Goleta, California – and the Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope in Australia.
Even TOI 451’s most distant planet orbits three times closer than Mercury ever approaches to the Sun, so all of these worlds are quite hot and inhospitable to life as we know it. Temperature estimates range from about 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit (1,200 degrees Celsius) for the innermost planet to about 840 F (450 C) for the outermost one.

TOI 451 b orbits every 1.9 days, is about 1.9 times Earth’s size, and its estimated mass ranges from two to 12 times Earth’s. The next planet out, TOI 451 c, completes an orbit every 9.2 days, is about three times larger than Earth, and holds between three and 16 times Earth’s mass. The farthest and largest world, TOI 451 d, circles the star every 16 days, is four times the size of our planet, and weighs between four and 19 Earth masses.

Astronomers expect planets as big as these to retain much of their atmospheres despite the intense heat from their nearby star. Different theories of how atmospheres evolve by the time a planetary system reaches TOI 451’s age predict a wide range of properties. Observing starlight passing through the atmospheres of these planets provides an opportunity to study this phase of development and could aid in constraining current models.

“By measuring starlight penetrating a planet’s atmosphere at different wavelengths, we can infer its chemical composition and the presence of clouds or high-altitude hazes,” said Elisa Quintana, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “TOI 451’s planets offer excellent targets for such studies with Hubble and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.”

Observations from WISE show that the system is unusually bright in infrared light, which is invisible to human eyes, at wavelengths of 12 and 24 micrometers. This suggests the presence of a debris disk, where rocky asteroid-like bodies collide and grind themselves to dust. While Newton and her team cannot determine the extent of the disk, they envision it as a diffuse ring of rock and dust centered about as far from the star as Jupiter is from our Sun.

The researchers also investigated a faint neighboring star that appears about two pixels away from TOI 451 in TESS images. Based on Gaia data, Newton’s team determined this star to be a gravitationally bound companion located so far from TOI 451 that its light takes 27 days to get there. In fact, the researchers think the companion is likely a binary system of two M-type dwarf stars, each with about 45% of the Sun’s mass and emitting only 2% of its energy.

Using Lasers to Create Miniature Robots From Bubbles

Robots are widely used to build cars, paint airplanes and sew clothing in factories, but the assembly of microscopic components, such as those for biomedical applications, has not yet been automated. Lasers could be the solution. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have used lasers to create miniature robots from bubbles that lift, drop and manipulate small pieces into interconnected structures.
As manufacturing has miniaturized, objects are now being constructed that are only a few hundred micrometers long, or about the thickness of a sheet of paper. But it is hard to position such small pieces by hand. In previous studies, scientists created microscopic bubbles using light or sound to assemble 2D items. Also, in a recent experiment, microbubbles produced by lasers, focused and powerful beams of light, could rotate shapes in 3D space.

Although these bubble microrobots could manipulate 2D and 3D objects, they could not connect independent components and then move them as a singular entity. So, Niandong Jiao, Lianquing Liu and colleagues wanted to build on their previous work with lasers to develop bubble microbots that can form inseparable shapes and control their movement.

The researchers created microbubbles in water by focusing a laser underneath a small part made of resin. The bubble’s size was controlled by rapidly switching the laser on and off, with a higher amount of time in the “on position” resulting in larger bubbles. Then, the team made a mobile bubble robot by shifting the laser’s location. Once the laser turned off, the bubbles dissolved slowly, dropping the resin in place.

The team then combined multiple bubbles with different functions to produce microrobots that could lift and drop parts, move single pieces to designated positions, act as a rotational axis or push assembled objects.

Unbreakable connections were made with various joints, producing three- and four-pronged gears, a snake-shaped chain and a miniature 3D vehicle. The bubble microrobots have implications for the future of manufacturing, including biological tissue engineering, the researchers say.

New “Fast Forward” Algorithm Could Unleash the Power of Quantum Computers

A new algorithm that fast forwards simulations could bring greater use ability to current and near-term quantum computers, opening the way for applications to run past strict time limits that hamper many quantum calculations.

“Quantum computers have a limited time to perform calculations before their useful quantum nature, which we call coherence, breaks down,” said Andrew Sornborger of the Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences division at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and senior author on a paper announcing the research. “With a new algorithm we have developed and tested, we will be able to fast forward quantum simulations to solve problems that were previously out of reach.”

Computers built of quantum components, known as qubits, can potentially solve extremely difficult problems that exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Applications include faster analysis of large data sets, drug development, and unraveling the mysteries of superconductivity, to name a few of the possibilities that could lead to major technological and scientific breakthroughs in the near future.

Recent experiments have demonstrated the potential for quantum computers to solve problems in seconds that would take the best conventional computer millennia to complete. The challenge remains, however, to ensure a quantum computer can run meaningful simulations before quantum coherence breaks down.

“We use machine learning to create a quantum circuit that can approximate a large number of quantum simulation operations all at once,” said Sornborger. “The result is a quantum simulator that replaces a sequence of calculations with a single, rapid operation that can complete before quantum coherence breaks down.”

The Variational Fast Forwarding (VFF) algorithm that the Los Alamos researchers developed is a hybrid combining aspects of classical and quantum computing. Although well-established theorems exclude the potential of general fast forwarding with absolute fidelity for arbitrary quantum simulations, the researchers get around the problem by tolerating small calculation errors for intermediate times in order to provide useful, if slightly imperfect, predictions.

In principle, the approach allows scientists to quantum-mechanically simulate a system for as long as they like. Practically speaking, the errors that build up as simulation times increase limits potential calculations. Still, the algorithm allows simulations far beyond the time scales that quantum computers can achieve without the VFF algorithm.

One quirk of the process is that it takes twice as many qubits to fast forward a calculation than would make up the quantum computer being fast forwarded. In the newly published paper, for example, the research group confirmed their approach by implementing a VFF algorithm on a two qubit computer to fast forward the calculations that would be performed in a one qubit quantum simulation.

In future work, the Los Alamos researchers plan to explore the limits of the VFF algorithm by increasing the number of qubits they fast forward, and checking the extent to which they can fast forward systems. The research was published September 18, 2020 in the journal npj Quantum Information.

Game-Changer in Future Solar Technology: New Perovskite Solar Modules With Greater Size, Power and Stability


Perovskites are projected to be a game-changer in future solar technology but currently suffer from a short operational lifespan and drops in efficiency when scaled up to a larger size
Scientists have improved the stability and efficiency of solar cell modules by mixing the precursor materials with ammonium chloride during fabrication
The perovskite active layer in the improved solar modules are thicker and have larger grains, with fewer defects
Both 5 x 5 cm2 and 10 x 10 cm2 perovskite modules maintained high efficiencies for over 1000 hours
Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have created perovskite solar modules with improved stability and efficiency by using a new fabrication technique that reduced defects. Their findings were published on the 25th of January 2021, in Advanced Energy Materials.

Perovskites are one of the most promising materials for the next-generation of solar technology, soaring from efficiencies of 3.8% to 25.5% in slightly over a decade. Perovskite solar cells are cheap to produce and have the potential to be flexible, increasing their versatility. But two obstacles still block the way to commercialization: their lack of long-term stability and difficulties with upscaling.

“Perovskite material is fragile and prone to decomposition, which means the solar cells struggle to maintain high efficiency over a long time,” said first author Dr. Guoqing Tong, a postdoctoral scholar in the OIST Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit, led by Professor Yabing Qi. “And although small-sized perovskite solar cells have a high efficiency and perform almost as well as their silicon counterparts, once scaled up to larger solar modules, the efficiency drops.”

In a functional solar device, the perovskite layer lies in the center, sandwiched between two transport layers and two electrodes. As the active perovskite layer absorbs sunlight, it generates charge carriers which then flow to the electrodes via the transport layers and produce a current.

However, pinholes in the perovskite layer and defects at the boundaries between individual perovskite grains can disrupt the flow of charge carriers from the perovskite layer to the transport layers, reducing efficiency. Humidity and oxygen can also start to degrade the perovskite layer at these defect sites, shortening the lifespan of the device.

Perovskite Solar Module and Surface of Active Layer
Perovskite solar cell devices require multiple layers to function. The active perovskite layer absorbs sunlight and generates charge carriers. The transport layers transport the charge carriers to the electrodes, releasing a current. The active perovskite layer is formed from many crystal grains. The boundaries between these grains, and other defects in the perovskite film, such as pinholes, lower the efficiency and lifespan of the solar devices. Credit: OIST

“Scaling up is challenging because as the modules increase in size, it’s harder to produce a uniform layer of perovskite, and these defects become more pronounced,” explained Dr. Tong. “We wanted to find a way of fabricating large modules that addressed these problems.”

Currently, most solar cells produced have a thin perovskite layer – only 500 nanometers in thickness. In theory, a thin perovskite layer improves efficiency, as the charge carriers have less distance to travel to reach the transport layers above and below. But when fabricating larger modules, the researchers found that a thin film often developed more defects and pinholes.

The researchers therefore opted to make 5 x 5 cm2 and 10 x 10 cm2 solar modules that contained perovskite films with double the thickness.

Scientists from the OIST Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit show off the perovskite solar modules in action, powering a fan and toy car. Credit: OIST

However, making thicker perovskite films came with its own set of challenges. Perovskites are a class of materials that are usually formed by reacting many compounds together as a solution and then allowing them to crystallize.

However, the scientists struggled to dissolve a high enough concentration of lead iodine – one of the precursor materials used to form perovskite – that was needed for the thicker films. They also found that the crystallization step was fast and uncontrollable, so the thick films contained many small grains, with more grain boundaries.

The researchers therefore added ammonium chloride to increase the solubility of lead iodine. This also allowed lead iodine to be more evenly dissolved in the organic solvent, resulting in a more uniform perovskite film with much larger grains and fewer defects. Ammonia was later removed from the perovskite solution, lowering the level of impurities within the perovskite film.

Surface of the Perovskite Active Layer
By adding ammonium chloride, the resultant perovskite film had fewer grains of a much larger size, reducing the number of grain boundaries. Credit: OIST

Overall, the solar modules sized 5 x 5 cm2 showed an efficiency of 14.55%, up from 13.06% in modules made without ammonium chloride, and were able to work for 1600 hours – over two months – at more than 80% of this efficiency.

The larger 10 x 10 cm2 modules had an efficiency of 10.25% and remained at high levels of efficiency for over 1100 hours, or almost 46 days.

“This is the first time that a lifespan measurement has been reported for perovskite solar modules of this size, which is really exciting,” said Dr. Tong.

This work was supported by the OIST Technology Development and Innovation Center’s Proof-of-Concept Program. These results are a promising step forward in the quest to produce commercial-sized solar modules with efficiency and stability to match their silicon counterparts.

In the next stage of their research, the team plans to optimize their technique further by fabricating the perovskite solar modules using vapor-based methods, rather than by using solution, and are now trying to scale up to 15 x 15 cm2 modules.

“Going from lab-sized solar cells to 5 x 5 cm2 solar modules was hard. Jumping up to solar modules that were 10 x 10 cm2 was even harder. And going to 15 x 15 cm2 solar modules will be harder still,” said Dr. Tong. “But the team is looking forward to the challenge.”

Holographic Display Improvements Poised to Enhance Virtual and Augmented Reality

Researchers have developed a new approach that improves the image quality and contrast for holographic displays. The new technology could help improve near-eye displays used for virtual and augmented reality applications.

“Augmented and virtual reality systems are poised to have a transformative impact on our society by providing a seamless interface between a user and the digital world,” said research team member Jonghyun Kim from technology company NVIDIA and Stanford University. “Holographic displays could overcome some of the biggest remaining challenges for these systems by improving the user experience and enabling more compact devices.”

In Optica, The Optical Society’s (OSA) journal for high impact research, the researchers describe their new holography display technology called Michelson holography. The approach combines a new optical setup inspired by Michelson interferometry with a recent software development. The setup generates the interference patterns necessary for making digital holograms.

The undiffracted light from two SLMs naturally creates a fringe pattern. The camera-in-the-loop algorithm iteratively optimizes both phase patterns to create the target image. Credit: Jonghyun Kim, Nvidia, Stanford University

“Although we’ve recently seen tremendous progress in machine-learning driven computer-generated holography, these algorithms are fundamentally limited by the underlying hardware,” said Kim. “We co-designed a new hardware configuration and a new algorithm to overcome some of these limitations and demonstrate state-of-the-art results.”

Boosting quality Holographic displays have the potential to outperform other 3D display technologies used for virtual and augmented reality by enabling more compact displays, improving the user’s ability to focus their eyes at different distances and offering the ability to adjust for users who wear corrective lenses. However, the technology hasn’t yet achieved the image quality of more conventional technologies.

For holographic displays, image quality is limited by an optical component known as a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). SLMs create the diffracted light that makes the interference pattern needed to form visible 3D images. However, the phase-only SLMs typically used for holography exhibit a low diffraction efficiency that significantly degrades observed image quality, especially image contrast.

Holographic Image Camera-in-the-Loop Optimization Process
The researchers used a camera-in-the-loop optimization process to improve the holographic images. The top images show the captured near and far plane focal images acquired with the optimization process while the bottom images show the two phase images used to create the hologram. Credit: Jonghyun Kim, Nvidia, Stanford University

Because it is difficult to dramatically increase the diffraction efficiency of SLMs, the researchers designed a completely new optical architecture to create holographic images. Rather than using a single phase-only SLM like most setups, their Michelson holography approach uses two phase-only SLMs.

“The core idea of Michelson holography is to destructively interfere with the diffracted light of one SLM using the undiffracted light of the other,” said Kim. “This allows the undiffracted light to contribute to forming the image rather than creating speckle and other artifacts.”

Optimizing the image The researchers combined this new hardware arrangement with a camera-in-the-loop (CITL) optimization procedure they modified for their optical setup. CITL optimization is a computational approach that can be used to optimize a hologram directly or to train a computer model based on a neural network.

CITL allowed the researchers to use a camera to capture a series of displayed images. This meant they could correct small misalignments of the optical system without using any precise measuring devices.

“Once the computer model is trained, it can be used to precisely figure out what a captured image would look like without physically capturing it,” said Kim. “This means that the entire optical setup can be simulated in the cloud to perform real-time inference of computationally heavy problems with parallel computing. This could be useful for calculating a computer-generated hologram for a complicated 3D scene, for example.”

The researchers tested their new Michelson holography architecture using a benchtop optical setup in their lab. They used it to display several 2D and 3D holographic images, which were recorded with a conventional camera. The demonstration showed that the dual-SLM holographic display with CITL calibration provides significantly better image quality than existing computer-generated hologram approaches.

Making the new system practical would require translating the benchtop setup into a system that would be small enough to incorporate into a wearable augmented or virtual reality system. The researchers point out that their approach of co-designing hardware and software could be useful for improving other applications of computational displays and computational imaging in general.